We'll take a break from the series on Windows services this week and cover some more Autofac / IoC / DI material. I hope to finish the services series with the final part next week.
Back in December I wrote a rather long post about the different Autofac relationship types. I covered what I considered to be the big ones, but there were a few that I didn't cover: IIndexed, and Keyed. I had an objection to these types that prevented me from examining them any further.
My Initial Objection
It's pretty simple. I don't want to have to reference the the IoC container framework in my classes. Accepted wisdom on IoC container usage is that you shouldn't reference the container, and I viewed this as an extension of that. Indeed I prefer to avoid referencing such infrastructure frameworks in core code wherever possible.
I feel the same way about the BCL's TypeConverterAttribute, and the XML serialization attributes, for example. It's an insidious form of coupling, and I really prefer to avoid having these little signposts sprinkled throughout the code of what framework I'm working with. Especially if they represent things that I can't sub out for testing, as is usually the case with the BCL.
In addition to the framework reference objection, I felt that this was just not a responsibility that belonged to the subject class. Using special parameter types or the like to denote such information was "cheating", akin to service location, and undermined the principle of Inversion of Control.
The purist in me had dug in on two separate fronts, and was ready for a fight. But recently I had an experience that taught me the value of these relationship types: I found I needed to inject two different implementations of the same service in the same place. I initially shied away from these relationship types. Instead, I decided I could solve the problem with a clever registration/configuration. After all, deciding who gets what implementations is what that's all about, though typically in a more generalized sense.
My situation was that I had needed two different runtime instances of an image cache. One for full-size images, and one for thumbnails. And most commonly I needed to reference both of them in the same scope. If the two use cases existed in different contexts, I could possible use Autofac's nested container support to identify each one appropriately when needed. But in my scenario, I actually had a couple of classes that needed to make use of both caches. I gave the constructor for that class two parameters for injection, both having a datatype of the cache interface type. Then I went to work setting up the registration.
Without a major redesign, the solution has to involve attaching some metadata to each of two separate instances registered with the container. The container needs some way to differentiate between the instances. Since Autofac provides it, there's really no reason at all not to use the keying facility for registration. Given an interface ICache and an implementor Cache, the registration would look as below.
Now let's introduce another class that needs to use both of these caches.
Again, my instinct is to say that the class shouldn't have to say anything else. It's the container's job to figure out how to fill those dependencies. But what information does the ImageBrowser class expose that the container registration could use to determine which argument gets which instance of ICache? Well right now, there's not much there. Pretty much just the argument names. Can we use those to assign the ICache instances? Yes, but it ain't pretty.
The way to access the parameter names for resolution is to hook the OnPreparing event, as seen here:
Our implementation of OnPreparingImageBrowser then looks like this:
This looks harmless enough, if a bit verbose. But is a problems. We have encoded parameter names in strings in our registration code. If we ever have to change those parameter names, or add more dependencies to the constructor, this registration code for ImageBrowser will be broken, but it will still compile. So unless you have some pretty magnificent tests for your IoC registration (which it seems is not easy to do), this is a regression bug waiting to happen. Furthermore, this code is very likely useless even if we have another class with these same dependencies. If the constructor arguments are named differently, we'll need another delegate for that set of constructor arguments.
So obviously argument names aren't the ideal way for the subject to communicate information about multiple dependencies of the same service type. And even using the argument names undermines my objection in spirit. It just does it implicitly, rather than explicitly. So let's just accept that we've already taken the first step and go the rest of the way. How can we communicate the necessary information in a sustainable way, that doesn't require us to go mucking around in the registration code if we shuffle things around a bit in ImageBrowser?
Three options spring to mind. One would be to use an attribute applied to the arguments of the constructor. But there's no native support for recognizing these in Autofac, so we'd have to write our own registration and resolution conventions. While it would be more resistant to change than the named parameter mechanism, it would require even more code on the registration side of things, to set up a convention-based registration that keys on the attributes. Not to mention having to define the attributes. This actually sounds like a fun exploration for another day. But today, we just want to get this working with a small amount of intuitive code.
Autofac has two mechanisms which we can use to reduce the amount of code we need here: IIndexed and Meta.
Using Autofac's IIndexed mechanism is a simple change from where we are now. It involves a small change to the constructor of ImageBrowser, and removing code from the bootstrapper. That's right, a net reduction in code, without losing functionality. And there's nothing better than a good codectomy. So grab the scalpel and sculpt our new bootstrapper.
Note the removal of the OnPreparingImageBrowser method, and the reference to it in the ImageBrowser registration. That's the only change here. It's completely unnecessary code. The cache registries don't need to change because the IIndexed mechanism hooks right into the keyed registration just like our old strategy did.
The ImageBrowser constructor needs to change a bit to trigger resolution using the keyed registration. Here's the updated class:
The only change here is that we consolidated the separate cache arguments into one dictionary-style argument.
Autofac's Meta mechanism works a little differently in that it allows you to attach data to a registration, and then to express a dependency on that metadata, in the subject class. The data takes the form of name/value pairs. If we wanted to use this, it would change our registration as follows:
We've replaced the call to Keyed with a call to WithMetadata. We also are essentially passing a name-value pair. There's also the option to attach an actual custom metadata object, and use the property names and values as the name/value pairs. Since we only need the one value, and it's not going to be changing at runtime, we can just directly assign the name and value easily.
Once again our constructor will need to change, of course. Here's the version that uses the metadata:
Here we're using the IEnumerable relationship type to get all the metadata objects, and then explicitly picking out the ones with the two with the values we're looking for. The CacheTypeChecker method is just a little comparison delegate generator that saves a bit of repeated code in the constructor.
The Lesser of Two Evils
Now this isn't necessarily the problem that Meta or IIndexed are meant to solve. It's really more meant for cases where the needed component is going to depend on runtime conditions. In that case, a simple service finder/locator is sometimes exactly what you want. There are often other ways to get the job done even then however, for example using lifetime contexts and contextual state objects to give the container all the information it needs.
In our case though, the dependency that's actually being injected bothers me a bit. It's sort of a limited service locator. The problem with that is that the specific dependencies aren't explicit. ImageBrowser is basically saying, "Er, I can't tell you exactly what I want, but if you give me everything like this, I'll pick out the ones I want". That is definitely not a pure inversion of control in this case, because we need exactly 2 instances of a very particular type.
We're basically limited to choosing the lesser of two evils. Do we couple to constructor argument names, or take a dependency on a service locator? I'm not sure I feel more strongly about either one. But the IIndexed option is definitely the least code, so that's the one I'll go with. And you can bet that if I run across a situation where the decision of which instance I need is made at runtime, I'll look to these solutions first.
Somewhere down the line I'll investigate that attribute convention option I mentioned in passing. I tend to dislike attributes, but if it's our code (rather than framework code) that does both the defining and the consuming... then maybe I can live with it.
GitHub Source Code References
- Keyed registration with OnPreparing resolution
- Keyed registration with IIndexed<TKey, TComponent> dependency
- Metadata registration with Meta<TComponent> dependency